Types of wheat
Wheat or wheat is classified according to the different grinding in soft wheat and durum wheat, the first type is easily ground and flour is obtained, while for the second type there is a greater crushing difficulty and from this the semolina is created. Both types of wheat are used to produce essential foods for human consumption such as bread and pasta. Wheat is grown in the Mediterranean area, and is usually planted in the fall and then harvested during the summer. The abundance of rainfall during the autumn and winter season allows farmers not to irrigate wheat crops during the initial stages, but it is very important that during the flowering stages there is a proper supply of water.
How to sow it and cultivate it
Before planting the wheat it is necessary to prepare the ground for sowing proceeding with a plowing in the months of October-November, to then begin sowing with the help of a seeder. After treating the soil, experts advise treating the seed with fungicide-based powders to ensure a good yield and protection from possible attacks by other fungi. The wheat field is usually divided into equidistant rows (0.14 to 0.18 meters) to facilitate the growth and uniform collection of the plants, and the sowing must be carried out at a depth that does not exceed 5 cm in order not to end up with plants with limited development. For the choice of the seed to be cultivated it is advisable not to choose only one variety but to mix different types of seeds, so as to obtain a variegated and profitable harvest.
When to fertilize it and collect it
To obtain a good production of wheat it is necessary to fertilize the seedlings with products based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, elements necessary to satisfy the needs of the wheat. Nitrogen increases the production of roots and sprouts, promotes flowering and improves the appearance of the ears that have more inflorescences. Phosphorus is widely used in all crops, since the soils are devoid of this fundamental mineral which accentuates the flavor and the taste of the plants and nourishes and enriches the soil, while the potassium-based fertilizer is very important for regulating the metabolism of plants. Wheat must be harvested when the grain of wheat stops developing and the color of the plant is gold-yellow, and is usually done in September-October.
Wheat: Diseases and remedies
Wheat can be attacked by numerous fungal diseases that can compromise both roots and ears. One of the most common attacks on wheat plants is that of plant parasites: cercosporella herpotricodes which makes straw fragile, ophiobolus graminis which causes significant damage to the roots causing the growth of whitish and half-empty spikes. The insects that cause damage to the crops of wheat are the larvae of the fly that digging in the stem of the plant invalidate the growth of the plant; in some crops there may be attacks of plant bugs that damage the ears with their bites. To preserve the crop and protect it from the attack of diseases, it is possible to intervene during the emission phase of the ears with anti-fungicide treatments and in the case of epidemic diseases specific agro-drugs can be used.